Date: 18-11-18  Time: 04:46 AM

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Pharmaceutical / Re: CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES
« Last post by ayeshanoor on October 22, 2018, 03:27:17 PM »
 Manufacturing, analytical distribution records and reference   samples shall  be kept by, or be available to, the contract giver, and   any records relevant to  assessing the quality of a product in the event   of complaints or a suspected  defect shall be accessible and specified   in the defect or recall procedures of  the contract giver.
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Ask The Doctor ڈاکٹر سے سوال کریں / Common Issues Now a days
« Last post by ayeshanoor on October 20, 2018, 03:23:43 PM »
HIV/AIDS
Between 11 and 15% of U.S. AIDS cases occur in seniors over age 50. Between 1991 and 1996, AIDS in adults over 50 rose more than twice as fast as in younger adults. Seniors are unlikely to use condoms, have immune systems that naturally weaken with age, and HIV symptoms (fatigue, weight loss, dementia, skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes) are similar to symptoms that can accompany old age. Again, stereotypes about aging in terms of sexual activity and drug use keep this problem largely unrecognized. That's why seniors are not well represented in research, clinical drug trials, prevention programs and efforts at intervention.
http://www.forumpakistan.com.pk/haspatal-f34.html
Mental Health
Dementia is not part of aging. Dementia can be caused by disease, reactions to medications, vision and hearing problems, infections, nutritional imbalances, diabetes, and renal failure. There are many forms of dementia (including Alzheimer's Disease) and some can be temporary. With accurate diagnosis comes management and help. The most common late-in-life mental health condition is depression. If left untreated, depression in the elderly can lead to suicide. Here's a surprising fact: The rate of suicide is higher for elderly white men than for any other age group, including adolescents.
Physical Activity and Nutrition
Research indicates that staying physically active can help prevent or delay certain diseases, including some cancers, heart disease and diabetes, and also relieve depression and improve mood. Inactivity often accompanies advancing age, but it doesn't have to. Check with your local churches or synagogues, senior centers, and shopping malls for exercise and walking programs. Like exercise, your eating habits are often not good if you live and eat alone. It's important for successful aging to eat foods rich in nutrients and avoid the empty calories in candy and sweets.

Overweight and Obesity
Being overweight or obese increases your chances of dying from hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, dyslipidemia and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. In-depth guides and practical advice about obesity are available from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health.

Tobacco
Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of illness and premature death in the U.S. Tobacco use is now called "Tobacco dependence disease." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that smokers who try to quit are more successful when they have the support of their physician.

Substance Abuse
Substance abuse usually means drugs and alcohol. These are two areas we don't often associate with seniors, but seniors, like young people, may self-medicate using legal and illegal drugs and alcohol, which can lead to serious health consequences. In addition, seniors may deliberately or unknowingly mix medications and use alcohol. Because of our stereotypes about senior citizens, many medical people fail to ask seniors about possible substance abuse.
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thanks for sharing its lovely
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 Nearly half of the children under the age of five years suffer from stunted growth, said health and child rights experts, while expressing concern over acute food shortage across the province.
Sharing a research presentation at a meeting organised on Wednesday by Scaling Up Civil Society Alliance Pakistan (SUN-CSA, Pak) and Nutrition International with support from Health and Nutrition Development Society (Hands),  they demanded implementation of the ‘inter secretarial nutrition strategy’ made by the government around three years ago and enforcement of the Sindh Protection and Promotion of Breastfeeding Act to overcome the acute malnutrition
problem in Sindh.
During the four-hour-long discussion on the issue, the participants pledged to play their role in prioritizing nutrition at the policy level in Sindh and raise public awareness on the adverse effects of malnutrition.
Speaking on the occasion, Hands Chief Executive Officer Dr Sheikh Tanveer Ahmed said that nearly half of the children under five years of age in Sindh are stunted due to chronic malnutrition, a condition that has lifelong consequences on their physical and mental development.  He said the media, considered as the fourth pillar of the state, can play a powerful and active role through sustained focus on nutrition reporting. He urged the media to highlight the issue of malnutrition.
http://www.forumpakistan.com.pk/haspatal-f34.html
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 A study conducted by the researchers of US-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Water (USPCASW) and Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) has found alarming presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in water in Hyderabad. The findings were shared at a seminar held in USPCASW at Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET), Jamshoro, on Saturday.
http://hyderabad.pakistanjobs.pk/
DC Magsi orders PHE to ensure clean water supply
“… the presence of ARB is found in the groundwater, surface water and wastewater in Hyderabad and its surroundings,” said USPCASW Deputy Director and principle investigator of the study Dr Rasool Bux Mahar. He identified the industrial waste, agricultural runoff and the waste of humans and animals as sources of the ARB.
“Bacterial isolates identified in the study’s findings pose a potential threat to the people living in Hyderabad,” he highlighted. According to Dr Mahar, the water distribution network in Hyderabad, being operated by the Water and Sanitation Agency, brimmed with technical flaws, deteriorating the water quality and also providing ripe conditions for the bacterial growth.
The Heterotrophic Plate Count, a method of measuring colony formation of bacteria in drinking water, found pseudomonas, shigella, vibrio and e-coli bacteria in the water samples. The ARBs reduce the efficacy of antibiotic medicines, making treatment of life-threatening illnesses difficult, if not impossible. Dr Mahar also illustrated the disinfection processes of ARB including the chlorine, ultraviolet and silver nano particles.
PCSIR senior scientific officer and co-investigator of study Dr Zulfiqar Ali Mirani informed that a total of 501 isolates of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteusp., shigella, vibrio and enterococci were identified in the study. The research, he added, screened them against commonly prescribed antibiotics.
“The microbiological analysis showed that the majority of water samples were not fit for human consumption,” he concluded. Dr Mirani said that water used for drinking, cooking and washing should be free from coliform and fecal coliform bacteria.
The study, he told, found 70% of water samples, taken from the Water and Sanitation Agency’s system, and 87% of river, canal and groundwater samples are unfit for drinking, cooking and washing purposes. “Majority of reverse osmosis (RO) plants’ water samples were also not fit due to high bacterial load.”
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Health Care System / JPMC sets up special ward for dog-bite cases
« Last post by ayeshanoor on October 13, 2018, 03:26:31 PM »
 A special ward has been set up at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) hospital to deal with dog-bite incidents that have become common in many areas of the city.
According to JPMC Executive Director Dr Seemin Jamali, around 20 to 25 dog-bite cases are reported daily at different city hospitals. In the past year,more than 6,300 dog-bite cases were reported in Jinnah hospital alone. In the past one-and-a-half month, more than 80 dog-bite incidents have been reported. This year, within a four month span, six people have died due to rabies caused because of a stray dog bite at Jinnah hospital.
Dr Jamali said that to contain the dog-bite incidents, immediate measures were needed and the city’s municipal bodies must wake up to address this issue.
The number of dog-bite incidents has increased with the rise in the population of stray dogs on the streets, but local authorities have failed to launch any campaign to eliminate this menace.
A mad dog bit 12 people in Korangi 5 on August 12 while 13 people were bitten by a stray dog in Landhi 2 on August 30 and five people in Korangi 5 on September 9 and 10 people in another area of Korangi on September 19 became victims of dog-bites. Furthermore, 20 children were bitten by a mad stray dog while playing outside in Korangi 2 and 10 people, including four men and three women who were taken to the hospital for immediate treatment and given vaccination, in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I on October 1.
http://www.forumpakistan.com.pk/haspatal-f34.html
Residents fearing the increase in the population of stray dogs in the city regret that no action was being taken to eliminate stray dogs.
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The early years of adulthood significantly impact an individual’s life.
Often the aspirations and apprehensions for the future engulf one in stress and anxiety. The feelings, if not recognised and managed, can distract and overwhelm you. In some case, it can lead to mental health issues.
For the youth of today, the increasing pressure of social media and constant connectivity frequently overpowers the urge to find contentment.
To stress upon the importance of mental health for young people growing up in a changing world, the World Health Organisation (WHO) chose it as the theme for the annual World Mental Health Day.
According to WHO, “Half of all mental illness begins by the age of 14, but most cases go undetected and untreated”.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
One of the most common behavioral disorders of childhood yet only recently was the persistence of ADHD symptoms in adult life recognized.
A child with ADHD typically cries more than other babies, is irritable and sleeps less often. Developmental milestones may occur early but they may also be clumsy and have problems with coordination.
An individual with ADHD often finds it difficult to focus and tends to be impulsive. Adults may have continuing interpersonal problems such as alcohol or drug use. They may also complain of trouble with concentration, disorganisation, impulsivity, mood liability, over activity, quick temper, and intolerance of stress.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A challenge to diagnose, GAD appears differently than assumed. In our world, anxiety is considered ‘too much worrying’ if there are no panic attacks. The constant struggle to contain worrying is usually dismissed and left untreated.
Gaming addiction classified as mental health disorder by WHO
According to DSM-5, the presence of excessive anxiety and worry occurring for more than six months is clearly is a mental health disorder. The worrying, in both adults and children, may easily shift from one topic to another. It is accompanied by restlessness, fatigue, lack of attention, irritability and trouble in sleeping.
In simple terms, anxiety is excessive worrying without the presence of a specific concern. A person struggling with GAD will spend a large amount of time worrying about something or the other.
The anxiety and its associated symptoms make it difficult to carry out routine activities and responsibilities.
Eating disorder
An eating disorder is defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect an individual’s physical and mental health. Research shows biological and environmental factors play a role in eating disorders.
Eating disorders are common among children, teens and women. General symptoms involve self-criticism, negative thoughts and feelings about body weight and food and eating habits that disrupt normal body function and daily life.
The three main sub-categories of eating disorders defined in DSM-V include:
Binge Eating Disorder:  it involves recurring episodes of overeating in a short period of time. The episodes are marked by feelings of lack of control followed by feelings of guilt, embarrassment and disgust.
Self-employment improves mental health: study
Anorexia Nervosa: the disorder primarily affects adolescent girls and young women. It involves having distorted body image perception and excessive dieting leading to severe weight loss. In simple terms, the disorder revolves around a person’s pathological fear of gaining weight.
Bulimia Nervous: this eating disorder is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by extreme guilt that leads to unhealthy behaviors such as self-induced vomiting to avoid weight gain.
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions are recurring thoughts, beliefs, or ideas that dominate an individual’s mental content. These thoughts persist even despite the person’s efforts to resist. These are rituals performed with the aim to neutralize the obsessional thinking.
It is pertinent to note that repeated thoughts can sometimes be compulsions – if their purpose is to reduce the obsessional anxiety. Compulsions can be comparatively simple, such as uttering or thinking a word or phrase of protection against an obsessive thought. But some are almost unbelievably complex. For instance, some elaborate routine rituals, if not performed exactly as specified by intricate rules, must be repeated until the patient gets it right.
The rituals can soak up hours every day. Most obsessions and compulsions usually result in anxiety and dread. These patients are bothered by repeated thoughts or behaviors that appear senseless, even to them.
OCD contains a variety of disorders including some that heavily impact youth.
Body-dysphoric disorder: Physically normal patients believe that parts of their bodies are misshapen or ugly. Excoriation disorder: Largely known as skin-picking disorder, it is the persistence of picking at their skin that they traumatize it. Hoarding disorder: an individual is compelled to hold on and accumulate so many objects, sometimes of no value, that they interfere with routine life. Trigonometrical: Commonly known as hair-pulling disorder, it involves pulling hair from various parts of the body and it is often accompanied by feelings of “tension and release”.
In some cases, obsessions and compulsions are caused by various medical conditions.
Substance or medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder: Various substances can lead to obsessive-compulsive symptoms that don’t fulfill criteria for any of the above-mentioned disorders.
According to DSM-V, OCD comprises four major symptom patterns. The most common is the fear of contamination that leads to excessive attempts to clean oneself. The second one is ‘doubts’ which leads to a repeated thought about act one has done or not.
http://www.forumpakistan.com.pk/haspatal-f34.html
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Doctors & Medical Students / Re: INFORMATION REQUIRED FCPS PHYSIOLOGY - PART 1
« Last post by ayeshanoor on October 10, 2018, 03:22:45 PM »
nice sharing its lovely
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