Date: 16-08-18  Time: 07:35 AM

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Advertise / BZU LLM Submission of Thesis 2018
« Last post by ayeshanoor on August 01, 2018, 01:29:26 PM »
Lahore, Baha Uddin Zakariya University Multan (Lahore campus) has announced the last date for the submission of the thesis, which is 10-9-2018. The candidates, who are appearing in the LLM in the Lahore Campus for both sessions of 2013-15 and 2014-16, they should send their thesis by the closing date and the thesis after this date will not be accepted. If any student, who is unable to send their thesis till this date, they should apply for extension of 6 months well in time and also pay the fee for this semester.
Get Notification Here.
BZU LLM Submission of Thesis 2018
At least 40 million people worldwide are estimated to be trapped in modern slavery today – more than ever before – as poverty, conflict and crises fuel the growing global slave trade.
From men made to work in factories, farms and fishing boats and women forced to sell sex to people exploited for their organs and children sent to beg or forced to marry, human trafficking is one of the fastest growing criminal enterprises.
North Korea, Eritrea and Burundi are estimated to have the world’s highest rates of modern-day slavery, with India, China and Pakistan home to the largest number of victims, according to the United Nations and Walk Free Foundation.
The United Nations has designated July 30 World Day against Trafficking in Persons, with the world striving to meet a UN goal to end forced labour and modern slavery by 2030.
People can be trafficked for various forms of exploitation such as prostitution, forced labour, begging, criminality, domestic servitude, forced marriage and organ removal.
The face of human trafficking is changing, with more children and men falling prey, and more victims trapped in forced labour than a decade ago, the UN says.
At least 40 million people are victims of modern slavery worldwide – with nearly 25 million trapped in forced labour and about 15 million in forced marriages.
Almost three-quarters are female – and one in four a child with modern-day slavery most prevalent in Africa followed by Asia and Pacific.
Buy Bakra, Dumba, Goat, Cow, bull, Camel for sacrifice at Eid ul Azha for qurbani in Pakistan from online bakra mandi. This time Eid-ul-Adha will be on 1st Septermber, 2017 on Friday in Pakistan, while some countries will observe Eid on 31 August 2017 or 2nd September 2017. Muslims will sacrifice animals on 1st, 2nd or 3rd day of Eid Qurbani in the remembrance of great sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim Alaihis Salam. On this day, muslims sacrifice their animals and devide in poor people around them. This website provide you easy way to do qurbani even for Pakistani's living outside Pakistan in foreign countires like USA, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Europe, India, Japan, China, France, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Hong Kong etc. Overseas Pakistan can book their animal online and we can deliver animal to their provided address or nominated charities in Pakistan. We have VIP animals for sale from special bakra farm house at this speciall occassion of Eid. You can select animals after viewing pics or on the basis of weight. We congratulate all people of Pakistan from Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujranwala, Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Dera Ghazi Khan, Peshawar, DI Khan, Swat, Kohat, Malakand, Abbottabad, Mardan, Bannu, Sukkur, Hyderabad, Aga Khan, Larkana, AJK, Mirpur Khas, Quetta and other cities on this special day of Eid Qurbani 2017. For Islamabad and Rawapindi, we also have Sadaqa / Sadqa and Aqiqa / Aqeeqa bakra available.
Surgical Instruments / Spanish Translation Services
« Last post by ayeshanoor on July 28, 2018, 01:09:31 PM »
Spanish is also called Romance language. Spanish is 2nd most spoken native language and 3rd most spoken language in all over the world after English and Chinese. It was originated in 9th century. It is derived from dialect of spoken Latin. It has almost 450 to 500 million speakers in all over the world. It is spoken in Spain, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Guatemala, Cuba, Bolivia, Honduras, El Salvador, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Panama, Equatorial Guinea, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Uruguay, USA, Brazil, Belize, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Andorra, and Gibraltar. is specialist in providing certified professional spanish translation services in all major cities of Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Peshawer, Quetta, Sialkot, Gujrat, Multan, Hyderabad, Bahawalpur and all other cities.
We do spanish translate all kind of letters and documents in almost all languages. We have expert spanish translators, spanish interpreters from all languages including Arabic, Balochi, Check Republic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latin, Pashto, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Sindhi, Spanish etc. translation services are very reliable. Our all clients data is confidential. Our spanish translators are qualified and expert in their work.
Although translation rates are very cheap but we provide most reliable, trustworthy and best spanish translation
Advertise / 5 natural ways to relieve stress
« Last post by ayeshanoor on July 27, 2018, 01:18:16 PM »
Stress is the body’s natural response to pressure. It can have a negative effect on your body, mood, as well as behaviour, with wide-ranging effects like headaches, anxiety, fatigue and irritability. The causes of stress vary from one person to the next, and so do the effects. Managing stress should be a priority, but is often difficult to achieve due to lack of time or simple methods to do so. Compiled from Business Standard, here are 5 natural ways to help you cope with and relieve stress.
1. Unwind with physical activity
All forms of physical activity are useful in managing stress. Exercising has many benefits such as releasing endorphins and calming the mind, with a reduction in stress levels being an added bonus. Even 45 minutes of physical activity a day goes a long way towards managing stress levels.
2. Organise your life
Organizing one’s workload leads to a sense of control and peace of mind, and there are many ways to achieve this. One way to do this is through adopting good time management, by prioritizing tasks, and scheduling time to complete them. Switching between tasks and having them pile up often becomes an additional source of stress. Decentralization of tasks or asking for help as and when required is also a good way to reduce stress levels.
3. Use herbs in daily diet
Herbs like Ashwagandha have been proven to be effective in managing the negative effects of stress. This helps reduce the damaging effects of long-term stress by rejuvenating the mind and body. It is an adaption that helps the body stabilize physiological processes, maintain a healthy balance between different biological systems, and support better resilience to stress.
4. Eat the right food
Your eating habits have a significant impact on stress levels. Following a healthy diet with a good balance of different food groups and all the required nutrients is essential. A diet rich in different food groups such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, dairy, fish, and poultry would help you get the carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals you need. A well-nourished body is better able to cope with the physical and emotional effects of stress.
5. Get enough sleep
Sleep is essential in stress management; not getting enough typically leads to irritability and fatigue. Oversleeping, on the other hand, can make us sluggish, depressed  and puts our health at a higher risk. Getting the right amount of sleep, between 7-8 hours, is a good way to stay energized and effectively manage the challenges of the day.
In this busy and stressful life, these simple and natural methods can help you manage stress and maintain good mental and physical health.
In this sitting:
•   What is diarrhea?
•   What causes diarrhea?
•   What are the symptoms?
•   Diarrhea in Children
•   What is dehydration?
•   When should a doctor be consulted?
•   What tests might the doctor do?
•   What is the treatment?
•   Preventing traveler's diarrhea
•   Points to Remember
What is diarrhea? Stomach flu
Diarrhea--loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day--is a common problem that usually lasts a day or two and goes away on its own without any special treatment. However, prolonged diarrhea can be a sign of other problems.
The definition of diarrhea depends on what is normal for you. For some, diarrhea can be as little as one loose stool per day. Others may have three daily bowel movements normally and not be having what they consider diarrhea. So the best description of diarrhea is "an abnormal increase in the frequency and liquidity of stools."
Breast-fed babies have many soft bowel movements in a day. They may pass stool every time they eat. Twelve or more bowel movements a day may be OK. Bottle-fed babies don’t have as many bowel movements. Even so, 1 or 2 loose stools is not diarrhea. In a baby, diarrhea is many very runny bowel movements.
The basic physiology of acute diarrhea is simple: either not enough fluid is absorbed from the intestines, or the intestines produce too much fluid. The result is a lot more stool liquid then you're used to.
Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means the body lacks enough fluid to function properly. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children and the elderly, and it must be treated promptly to avoid serious health problems. Dehydration is discussed below.
People of all ages can get diarrhea. The average adult has a bout of diarrhea about four times a year.
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea may be caused by a temporary problem, like an infection, or a chronic problem, like an intestinal disease. A few of the more common causes of diarrhea are
•   Bacterial infections. Several types of bacteria, consumed through contaminated food or water, can cause diarrhea. Common culprits include
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli.
•   Viral infections. Many viruses cause diarrhea, including rotavirus, Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and viral hepatitis.
•   Food intolerances. Some people are unable to digest a component of food, such as lactose, the sugar found in milk.
•   Parasites. Parasites can enter the body through food or water and settle in the digestive system. Parasites that cause diarrhea include Giardia
lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium.
•   Medicines, such as antibiotics, blood pressure medications, NSAIDS, laxatives, and antacids containing magnesium.
•   Intestinal diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis ) or celiac disease.
•   Functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, in which the intestines do not work normally.
•   Eating too much of foods one is not used to.
•   Getting upset.
•   Some people develop diarrhea after stomach surgery or removal of the gallbladder, The reason may be a change in how quickly food moves through the digestive system after stomach surgery or an increase in bile in the colon that can occur after gallbladder surgery.
In many cases, the cause of diarrhea cannot be found. As long as diarrhea goes away on its own, an extensive search for the cause is not usually necessary.
People who visit foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea, which is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or, sometimes, parasites.
What are the symptoms?
Diarrhea may be accompanied by cramping abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, or an urgent need to use the bathroom. Depending on the cause, a person may have a fever or bloody stools.
Diarrhea can be either acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term). The acute form, which lasts less than 2 weeks, is usually related to a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection. Chronic diarrhea lasts more than 2 weeks and is usually related to functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome or diseases like celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.
Diarrhea in Children
Children can have acute or chronic forms of diarrhea. Causes include bacteria, viruses, parasites, medications, functional disorders, and food sensitivities. Infection with the rotavirus is the most common cause of acute childhood diarrhea. Rotavirus diarrhea usually resolves in 5 to 8 days.
Medications to treat diarrhea in adults can be dangerous to children and should be given only under a doctor's guidance.
Diarrhea can be dangerous in newborns and infants. In small children, severe diarrhea lasting just a day or two can lead to dehydration. Because a child can die from dehydration within a few days, the main treatment for diarrhea in children is rehydration.
Rehydration is discussed below.
Take your child to the doctor if any of the following symptoms appear:
•   stools containing blood or pus, or black stools
•   temperature above 101.4 degrees Fahrenheit
•   no improvement after 24 hours
•   signs of dehydration (see below)
What is dehydration?
General signs of dehydration include
•   thirst
•   less frequent urination
•   dry skin
•   fatigue
•   light-headedness
•   dark colored urine
Signs of dehydration in children include
•   dry mouth and tongue
•   no tears when crying
•   no wet diapers for 3 hours or more
•   sunken abdomen, eyes, or cheeks
•   high fever
•   listlessness or irritability
•   skin that does not flatten when pinched and released
If you suspect that you or your child is dehydrated, call the doctor immediately. Severe dehydration may require hospitalization.
Preventing Dehydration
Dehydration occurs when the body has lost too much fluid and electrolytes (the salts potassium and sodium). The fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea need to be replaced promptly--the body cannot function properly without them. Dehydration is particularly dangerous for children, who can die from it within a matter of days.
Although water is extremely important in preventing dehydration, it does not contain electrolytes. To maintain electrolyte levels, you could have broth or soups, which contain sodium, and fruit juices, soft fruits, or vegetables, which contain potassium.
For children, doctors often recommend a special rehydration solution ORS that contains the nutrients they need.
When should a doctor be consulted?
Doctors are often not consulted for diarrhea and self medication is very common however patients should at least see the doctor if
•   They have diarrhea for more than 3 days / 24 hours in children.
•   They have severe pain in the abdomen or rectum.
•   They have a fever of 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.
•   They see blood in your stool or have black, tarry stools.
•   They have signs of dehydration.
If a child has diarrhea, do not hesitate to consult the doctor for advice. Diarrhea can be dangerous in children if too much fluid is lost and not replaced quickly.
What tests might the doctor do?
Diagnostic tests, which in the needed cases may be helpful to find the cause of diarrhea, include the following:
•   Medical history and physical examination. The doctor will need to know about patients eating habits and medication use and will examine him for

signs of illness.
•   Stool culture. Lab technicians analyze a sample of stool to check for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection.
•   Blood tests. Blood tests can be helpful in ruling out certain diseases.
•   Fasting tests. To find out if a food intolerance or allergy is causing the diarrhea, the doctor may ask the patient to avoid lactose (found in milk
carbohydrates, wheat, or other foods to see whether the diarrhea responds to a change in diet.
•   Sigmoidoscopy. For this test, the doctor uses a sigmoidoscop to look at the inside of the rectum and lower part of the colon.
•   Colonoscopy. This test is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but the doctor looks at the entire colon.
What is the treatment?
In most cases, replacing lost fluid to prevent dehydration is the only treatment necessary. (See Preventing Dehydration below.)
Medicines that stop diarrhea may be helpful in some cases, but they are not recommended for people whose diarrhea is from a bacterial infection or parasite--stopping the diarrhea traps the organism in the intestines, prolonging the problem. Instead, doctors usually prescribe antibiotics.
Viral causes are either treated with medication or left to run their course, depending on the severity and type of the virus.
Tips About Food
Until diarrhea subsides, try to avoid milk products and foods that are greasy, high-fiber, or very sweet. These foods tend to aggravate diarrhea.
As the patient improves, he can add soft, bland foods to your diet, including bananas, plain rice, boiled potatoes, toast, crackers, cooked carrots, and baked chicken without the skin or fat. For children, the pediatrician may recommend what is called the BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast.
Other dietary changes that may be helpful: Some foods contain sugars that are absorbed slowly, such as fructose in fruit juice or sorbitol in dietetic confectionery. Through a process called osmosis, these unabsorbed sugars hold onto water in the intestines, sometimes leading to diarrhea.1 By reading labels, people with chronic non-infectious diarrhea can easily avoid fruit juice, fructose, and sorbitol to see if this eliminates the problem.
People who are lactose intolerant—meaning they lack the enzyme needed to digest milk sugar—often develop diarrhea after consuming milk or ice cream. People whose lactose intolerance is the cause of diarrhea will rid themselves of the problem by avoiding milk and ice cream or in many cases by taking lactase, the enzyme needed to digest lactose. Lactase is available in a variety of forms in pharmacies (and in medicine stores in the form of lactase-treated milk in some countries).
Large amounts of vitamin C or magnesium found in supplements can also cause diarrhea, although the amount varies considerably from person to person. Unlike infectious diarrhea, diarrhea caused by high amounts of vitamin C or magnesium is not generally accompanied by other signs of illness. The same is true when the problem comes from sorbitol or fructose.2 In these cases, avoiding the offending supplement or food brings rapid relief.
Drinking several cups of coffee per day causes diarrhea in some people.3 People with chronic diarrhea who drink coffee should avoid all coffee for a few days to evaluate whether coffee is the culprit.

Allergies and food sensitivities are common triggers for diarrhea.4 For example, some infants suffer diarrhea when fed cow’s milk-based formula but improve when switched to soy-based formula.5 People with chronic diarrhea not attributable to other causes should discuss the possibility of food sensitivity with a doctor.

Colostrum might be useful for certain types of infectious diarrhea. In a double-blind trial, children with diarrhea caused by a rotavirus were treated with immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum derived from cows immunized with rotavirus. Compared with the placebo, colostrum extract significantly reduced the amount of diarrhea and the amount of oral rehydration solution required. The rotavirus was eliminated from the stool significantly more rapidly in the colostrum group than in the placebo group (1.5 days, vs. 2.9 days).

In addition to a positive effect against acute rotavirus diarrhea, there is also evidence that specific forms of colostrum (derived from specially immunized cows or those with confirmed presence of specific antibodies) are effective against diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. However, it is not known whether commercially-available colostrum provides significant amounts of the specific immunoglobulins that are active against these organisms. Furthermore, unless the immunoglobulins are present in high enough concentrations, the preparation is not likely to be effective.

It is known vitamin A supplements support immune function and prevent infections. In a study of African children between six months and five years old, a 44% reduction in the risk of severe diarrhea was seen in those children given four 100,000–200,000 IU supplements of vitamin A (the lower amount for those less than a year old) during an eight-month period. On further investigation, the researchers discovered that the reduction in diarrhea occurred only in children who were very malnourished.

Diarrhoea: correct management could save nearly 1.8 million lives per year
About two million children die each year in developing countries from diarrheal diseases, making it the second most serious killer of children under five worldwide. But diarrhea can in most cases be prevented or treated. Correct management of diarrhea could save the lives of up to 90% of children who currently die from the effects of the disease.

IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness )
Reduce the death toll from diarrhea by promoting:
o   Rapid and effective treatment through standard case management;
o   Prompt recognition and treatment of conditions that occur in association with diarrhea;
o   Improved home management;
o   Improved nutrition;
o   Prevention through increased breastfeeding and measles vaccination.

Diarrhea may be caused by a wide variety of infections but health workers following the IMCI approach learn to make rapid treatment decisions by determining the duration of the diarrhea, assessing the severity of dehydration and the presence of blood in stools. This leads them to selecting treatment protocols for either: persistent diarrhea (more than 14 days), acute watery diarrhea, or dysentery. This approach is both life-saving and cost-effective.
While urgent diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea may be a priority for saving a child's life, IMCI-trained health workers also consider the child's overall health status. For example, by treating the malnutrition that often accompanies diarrhea, further risk to the child's health can be reduced. Increasing vigilance to detect other diseases that can occur concurrently with diarrhea, such as measles or malaria, is also emphasized.

Preventing traveler's diarrhea
Traveler's diarrhea happens when you consume food or water contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites. You can take the following precautions to prevent traveler's diarrhea when you go abroad:
•   Do not drink any tap water, not even when brushing your teeth.
•   Do not drink unpasteurized milk or dairy products.
•   Do not use ice made from tap water.
•   Avoid all raw fruits and vegetables (including lettuce and fruit salad) unless they can be peeled and you peel them yourself.
•   Do not eat raw or rare meat and fish.
•   Do not eat meat or shellfish that is not hot when served to you.
•   Do not eat food from street vendors.

One can safely drink bottled water (if you are the one to break the seal), carbonated soft drinks, and hot drinks like coffee or tea.

Points to Remember
•   Diarrhea is a common problem that usually resolves on its own.
•   Diarrhea is dangerous if a person becomes dehydrated.
•   Causes include viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections; food intolerance; reactions to medicine; intestinal diseases; and functional bowel
•   Treatment involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes. Depending on the cause of the problem, a person might also need medication to stop
the diarrhea or treat an infection. Children may need an oral rehydration solution to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
•   Call the doctor if a person with diarrhea has severe pain in the abdomen or rectum, a fever of 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, blood in the
stool, signs of dehydration, or diarrhea for more than 3 days. This may need antibiotics.
Announcements and General topics / Re: Forum Objectives
« Last post by ayeshanoor on July 24, 2018, 12:37:25 PM »
nice sharing thanks
Big dams such as Diamer-Bhasha get a lot of press. This is not only because of the multitude of benefits that are to flow from these concrete structures, but also because of inadequate local ownership – leading to inherent controversies in financing of such flagship projects.
The investment volume usually runs into billions of dollars and the stringent criteria set by the World Commission on Dams for sustainable infrastructure development means that the aid money to fund big dams has started to dry up.
In 2016, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) walked away, citing, among other things, the huge risks involved in financing a mammoth dam like Diamer-Bhasha. It also rejected the resettlement action plan prepared by the Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) on grounds of a lack of consensus as local communities were not made part of the decision-making process.
Medical Education & Research / Healthy Tips
« Last post by ayeshanoor on July 21, 2018, 01:45:16 PM »
Crossing our Legs
Do you cross your legs at your knees when sitting? Although we may believe that this is the lady-like elegant way to sit, sitting this way cuts down circulation to your legs. If you don't want varicose veins to mar the beauty of your legs and compromise your health, uncross your legs every time you realize you have one knee on top of the other. The best way to sit is to simply place both legs together on the floor, balancing your weight equally. If you feel like changing position, instead of crossing your legs, simply move both legs together to one side. As an alternative, you could also consider crossing your legs loosely at the ankles. This is a classically elegant way to sit, and is far better for your legs and your health than sitting with your legs crossed at your knees.
Not changing our Toothbrush   
How often do you change your toothbrush? Most of us wait until most of the bristles have either fallen off, or are in such bad shape that we'd be embarrassed to pull out our brush in public. However, since not many of us need to pull out our brush in public, we carry on with our frayed one until we lose it. Replace your toothbrush often. Damaged bristles can harm the enamel, and don't massage your gums well. If you find brushing your teeth a pain like I do, but know you must do it, you might as well be doing it right. Imagine going through the annoyance of brushing your teeth twice a day only to find out that you're damaging your enamel every time you clean your teeth. Also, use a brush with soft bristles unless your dentist has advised otherwise.
Skipping Breakfast   
Never, ever skip breakfast. Remember, when you wake up in the morning it's been around 10-12 hours since your last meal. Your body needs food now, more than at any other time. Eat a heavy breakfast. You will then be busy through the day, and the calories will get expended quickly. If you are trying to diet, eat a light dinner. Here are some more common health mistakes we make. Being informed and making a few changes can help make us feel a whole lot better.
Turkey’s president Recep Tayyip Erdogan has underscored Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) supremo Shehbaz Sharif’s efforts to foster ties between the two countries.
In a letter, Erdoğan addresses the former chief minister of Punjab as his ‘brother’.
“I would like to thank you for your kind letter regarding the end of your tenure as Punjab’s CM in the context of general elections to be held in Pakistan,” the letter reads.
First of all, I wish to emphasize that the admirable efforts you have made for the promotions of cooperations between Punjab Province of Pakistan and Turkey during your five years duty in office are appreciated”.
“The brotherhood and friendly ties originating from history and existing cooperation between the peoples of Pakistan and Turkey will be handed over to the next generations in a stronger fashion,”the Justice and Development Party chief adds.
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